# Bootstrapping a Testing Library

## Abstract

What’s a person to do when one prefers developing in a TDD style and decides to start a project where nothing not directly in the language needs to be written? Why, write a testing library of course! But… without a testing library how can one write this testing library in a TDD fashion? Herein is how I went about doing it.

(Full disclosure: this is not the first time I’ve tried this sort thing1. But I had forgotten I had done it before until I was writing this article.)

## Why?

“If you wish to make an apple pie from scratch, you must first invent the universe.” – Carl Sagan

I have decided to have a crazy project wherein I’ll write an application in Common Lisp and only Common Lisp. That is to say, no other libraries. I have allowed myself to use extensions provided by the the implementation SBCL2 so luckily I won’t need to write my own socket and threading extensions.

This is a crazy and stupid idea. But the point of the project is to give me a place to play around with things I don’t normally deal with and in a language that I like to play with.

## Test Driving a Testing Library

### Where to start?

Common Lisp has no built in testing library, but it does have assert3. If you have assert you can write a testing library. The problem is writing the first test. I puzzled it over a little and decided I’d need a function which would take an expression to evaluate (the test) and would return some data structure which would indicate the results of the test. Given that here is the first test:

(assert (assoc :failure (test::collect-test-results (assert nil))))


So this is asserting that the return value of collect-test-results when applied to (assert nil) will be an alist4 which will have a cons cell whose car is :failure.

This test directly implies the following test:

(assert (not (assoc :failure (test::collect-test-results (assert t)))))


That is to say: if the expression does not raise an exception there will not be such an element in the returned alist.

After implementing a macro which lets those test pass I wrote some more tests to round out what I thought would be a useful implmentation of this base function of the library. I now had these tests to bootstrap my library.

(assert (assoc :failure (test::collect-test-results (assert nil))))
(assert (not (assoc :failure (test::collect-test-results (assert t)))))
(assert (equal (assoc :value (test::collect-test-results 'foo)) '(:value . foo)))
(assert (assoc :duration (test::collect-test-results 'foo)))
(assert (assoc :start (test::collect-test-results 'foo)))
(assert (assoc :end (test::collect-test-results 'foo)))
(format t "~A...PASSED~&" 'test::collect-test-results)


With this I felt that I had enough testing to make me feel confident in my little implementation. It wasn’t perfect - but good enough for me to now use this function to test other parts of my library.

### How to write a test

With collect-test-results I had a way to writing and running individual simple tests. But it wasn’t a very convenient thing to use. But what it let me do is now write tests for deftest which would let me define tests. I started by writing the sort of test I wanted to write:

(deftest a-simple-failing-test
"This is a very simple test which fails"
(assert (= 5 (+ 2 2))))


Through a few tests, written using collect-test-results I determined that deftest would intern a symbol with the same name as the first argument of the deftest, bind its function property to a function which when called would, by calling collect-test-results evaluate the body of the deftest. These symbols were put into a list which could be retrieved from the library. Furthermore, defining a test with the same name as an existing test does not create a duplicate test.

It might be clearest to just show you how these tests (and an extracted helper function) ended up:

(defmacro assert-no-failure (&body assertion)
(let ((failure (gensym "fail")))
(let ((,failure (assoc :failure (test::collect-test-results
(assert ,@assertion)))))
(assert (not ,failure) () (format nil "~A" ,failure)))))

(deftest a-simple-failing-test
"This is a very simple test which fails"
(assert (= 5 (+ 2 2))))

(let ((test-list (test::test-list)))
(assert-no-failure (equal test-list '(a-simple-failing-test)))
(assert-no-failure (fboundp (car test-list)))
(assert-no-failure (assoc :failure (funcall (car test-list))))
(assert-no-failure (string= "This is a very simple test which fails"
(documentation (car test-list) 'function)))
(assert-no-failure (equal (assoc :test-name (funcall (car test-list)))
'(:test-name . test-test::a-simple-failing-test))))

(deftest a-simple-failing-test
"This is a very simple test which fails"
(assert (= 5 (+ 2 2))))

(assert-no-failure (= (length (test::test-list)) 1))

(deftest a-simple-passing-test
"This is a very simple test which passes"
(assert (= 4 (+ 2 2))))

(assert-no-failure (= (length (test::test-list)) 2))

(format t "~A...PASSED~&" 'test:deftest)


### Running tests

Now that we can define tests and evaluate them all that is left is to have a convenient way to run the defined tests. Three quick tests on the output of run-all-tests were proof enough for me (the tests that the call to run-all-tests would run were the ones defined above, one passing and one failing) that it would execute each test, report which ones failed and a count of passes and fails to *standard-output*.:

(let ((*standard-output* (make-string-output-stream)))
(run-all-tests)
(let ((output (get-output-stream-string *standard-output*)))
(assert-no-failure (search "A-SIMPLE-FAILING-TEST...FAILED." output))
(assert-no-failure (search "PASSED: 1" output))
(assert-no-failure (search "FAILED: 1" output))))
(format t "~A...PASSED~&" 'test:run-all-tests)


### Recap

At this point my testing library has two main entry points: deftest and run-all-tests. To create them, I first used assert to test drive the creation on a lower-level function collect-test-results, which I then used to test drive deftest, which I then used to test drive run-all-tests`.

## Next Steps and Thoughts

Now that I have this testing library I can use it to test drive the rest of the application I will write. I’m sure along the way I’ll be extending this library as I find new requirements for it. I’ll probably also be writing some assertion library to make the tests more expressive.

The resulting tests5 and code6 are in my GitHub repository for this project: yakshave7.

tddlispcommonlisp